|Philippines...7000 islands with Dane Hodges|
Wednesday, November 16, 2011 - 11:08 PM
Philippines...7000 islands and Dane hodges
Dane Hodges has a special connection to the Philippines. It was the birthplace of his mother, Jeanne (Villar) Hodges, and the home of his grandparrents and two great-grandmothers! In addition, it is a common flight path outbound or inbound from his home 1350 miles to the east in the North Marianas islands, so trips through PI are frequent! Dane has ventured from the rice teraces of Bagio to the slopes of Mt Mayan, from beaches of Boracay and Cebu to the shores of Subic Bay, from the malls of Makati to the Chocolate Mounds and more.A democratic republic located in the Western Pacific Ocean, the Republic of the Philippines is made up of the Philippine Islands and is the island group at the northernmost part of the Malay Archipelago.
|Dane Hodges travels the Philippines!|
|Dane Hodges and his Mother, Subic Bay, Philippines|
The Philippines is situated about 1,210 km (about 750 mi) east of the coast of Vietnam and is separated in the north from Taiwan by the Bashi Channel. Bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea (and Pacific Ocean), on the south by the Celebes Sea, and on the west by the South China Sea, the archipelagic state comprises about 7,100 islands. Resulting from this situation are great variations in climate, geography and vegetation.
The total area of the Philippines has a total area of about 300,000 sq km (about 115, 830 sq mi). About 298,170 of the total area is land area with the remaining 1,830 being the total water area. The capital and largest city of the Philippines is Manila.
Extending 1,850 km (1,150 mi) from north to south and almost 1,127 km (700 mi) east to west, the Philippine Island group is of volcanic origin and generally mountainous. Running parallel to the coasts, as well as bordering them in many places, the mountain ranges extend north to south. There are about 20 active volcanoes on the islands, and earthquakes are fairly common.
|Dane Hodges with Elvis, Makati, Philippines|
The larger islands, Luzon and Mindanao, are characterized by high mountains with alluvial plains and narrow fertile valleys. Unlike the larger islands with their relatively diverse topography, the smaller islands are mountainous with surrounding flat lowlands.
Mount Apo, the Philippines' highest point, reaches 9692 ft (2954 m) and is found in the southernmost ranges on Mindanao, the second largest Philippine island.
Considered to be part of the Tropics, the Philippines' mean annual temperature is about 80°F (27°C) with the interior valleys tending to be a little warmer and the mountain peaks a little cooler than the mean. The relative humidity averages about 77%.
|Dane Hodges and dad, Bulacan, Philippines|
The rainy season is from May to November, which is the summer monsoon, while the dry season occurs during the winter monsoon from December to April. Typically, the weather is cool from November to February, while it's very hot and dry from March to May. The rainiest times are from June to October, with typhoons not uncommon during this time. The average rainfall in the lowlands is about 80 inches a year (2030 mm).
|Dane Hodges likes Philippine snakes|
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea, east of Vietnam
Area: total: 300,000 sq km
country comparison to the world: 72
land: 298,170 sq km
water: 1,830 sq km
Area - slightly larger than Arizona
Coastline: 36,289 km
territorial sea: irregular polygon extending up to 100 nm from coastline as defined by 1898 treaty; since late 1970s has also claimed polygonal-shaped area in South China Sea up to 285 nm in breadth
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: to depth of exploitation
Climate: tropical marine; northeast monsoon (November to April); southwest monsoon (May to October)
|Dane Hodges strolls through Bulacan, Philippines|
Terrain: mostly mountains with narrow to extensive coastal lowlands
lowest point: Philippine Sea 0 m
|12 persons! Photo by Dane Hodges, Obando,PI|
highest point: Mount Apo 2,954 m
timber, petroleum, nickel, cobalt, silver, gold, salt, copper
Land use: arable land: 19%
permanent crops: 16.67%
other: 64.33% (2005)
astride typhoon belt, usually affected by 15 and struck by five to six cyclonic storms per year; landslides; active volcanoes; destructive earthquakes; tsunamis
volcanism: the Philippines experience significant volcanic activity; Taal (elev. 311 m, 1,020 ft), which has shown recent unrest and may erupt in the near future, has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanologist and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Mayon (elev. 2,462 m, 8,077 ft), the country's most active volcano, erupted in 2009 forcing over 33,000 to be evacuated; other historically active volcanoes include Biliran, Babuyan Claro, Bulusan, Camiguin, Camiguin de Babuyanes, Didicas, Iraya, Jolo, Kanlaon, Makaturing, Musuan, Parker, Pinatubo and Ragang
|Obando, Bulacan, PI 2011|
Environment - current issues:
|Malati poverty, Philippines|
uncontrolled deforestation especially in watershed areas; soil erosion; air and water pollution in major urban centers; coral reef degradation; increasing pollution of coastal mangrove swamps that are important fish breeding grounds
Environment - international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
|Dane Hodges runs the boat, Makaiti, Philippines|
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants
Geography - note:
|Oops, Dane Hodges hits the ice, Manila, Philippines|
The Philippine archipelago is made up of 7,107 islands; favorably located in relation to many of Southeast Asia's main water bodies: the South China Sea, Philippine Sea, Sulu Sea, Celebes Sea, and Luzon Strait Ancient or pre-discovery history
The metatarsal of Callao Man is reported to have been reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago thereby replacing the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 24,000 years ago as the oldest human remains found in the archipelago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated. There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes that the ancestors of the Filipinos evolved locally. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the antediluvian Sundaland area around 48000 to 5000 BCE rather than by wide-scale migration.
The Austronesian Expansion Theory states that Malayo-Polynesians coming from Taiwan began migrating to the Philippines around 4000 BCE, displacing earlier arrivals. Whatever the case, by 1000 BCE the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gathering tribes, warrior societies, petty plutocracies, and maritime-centered harbor principalities.
|Dane Hodges on 4D coaster, Cavite, Philippines|
Trade between the maritime-oriented peoples and other Asian countries during the subsequent period brought influences from Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. During this time there was no unifying political state encompassing the entire Philippine Archipelago. Instead, the islands were divided among competing thalassocracies ruled by various datus, rajahs, or sultans. Among them were the kingdoms of Maynila, Namayan, and Tondo, the rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu, and the sultanates of Maguindanao and Sulu. Some of these societies were part of the Malayan empires of Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Brunei. Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from Malaysia and Indonesia. By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and by 1565 had reached Mindanao, the Visayas, and Luzon.
|Josh Hodges gets a lift, Philippines|
Philippine history, many argue, did not begin with the coming of the Portuguese explorer, Ferdinand Magellan in 1521. Rather, it began in the 13th century, when 10 datus from Borneo, each with a hundred of his kinsmen, landed in what is now known as Panay Island in the Visayas.
Yet, it was Magellan and succeeding expeditions from Spain, who put the Philippine archipelago on the map of the world. The intrepid Magellan was dubbed as the discoverer of the Philippines after he landed in Homonhon Islet, near Samar, on March 17, 1521. He was later killed in Mactan Island of Cebu in a clash with native warriors, led by a chieftain named Lapu-Lapu.
|Josh Hodges all in, Philippines|
The Philippines was a prize catch for Spain which, at that time, was locked in a fierce struggle for world colonization with Portugal. The archipelago, named Filipinas for Spain's Philip II, was composed of 7,107 islands and islets spanning 1,854 kilometers from north to south. The Philippines, also a window to the New World, stretched from China to the north and the Indonesian archipelago to the south. The northernmost tip of the country, Y'ami of the Batanes Island group, is 241 kilometers south of Taiwan, while the southernmost tip, Sibutu of the Tawi-Tawi group of islands, is just 14.4 kilometers north of Borneo.
The Philippines, in fact, is at most strategic location, making it a natural hub for commerce. Manila and Cebu are premiere centers of trade in the region. To the east is the vast Pacific Ocean and beyond it, the New World. To the west are the kingdoms of Indochina, including Cambodia and Thailand; while southwest is Malaysia.
|Dane Hodges gives a lift, Philippines|
There are three major geographical groups in the country: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The northern portion of the archipelago is composed of the largest island, Luzon. The Visayas region is made up of about 6,000 islands, including Panay, Leyte, Samar, Cebu, and Bohol. Mindanao is the second largest island and encompasses about 400 smaller islands.
|Dane Hodges and Mom ride Jeepney, Philippines|
Spanish colonizers succeeded in introducing Christianity in Luzon and Visayas but were unsuccessful in Mindanao, where Muslims staved off Spanish efforts.
Spain's rule lasted from the 16th to the 19th century but was marked with a series of revolts. When three Filipino priests were executed for national activities, a group of reformists formed the Propaganda Movement that would later paved the way for the Philippine Revolution. A young doctor-writer, Jose Rizal, was arrested and later executed by Spanish officials for his scathing criticisms of Spanish rule in the Philippines through two novels. Rizal, who was just 30 years old when he was executed, would later be recognized by historians as Asia's first nationalist. His contemporaries include Gandhi and Dr. Sun Yat-sen.
|Homeless of Bulacan, PI, Photo by Jeanne Hodges|
|Dane's parents, Subic Bay, PI |
The Philippine Revolution was launched after Rizal's death and was led first by Andres Bonifacio and then by Emilio Aguinaldo. Philippine independence was proclaimed on June 12, 1898, on the balcony of Aguinaldo's home in Cavite. However, the Philippines was annexed by the Americans by means of the Treaty of Paris with Spain on December 10, 1898. This brought about the Filipino-American War. The Philippines then remained an American colony for nearly 50 years. In 1935, a semiautonomous Philippine Commonwealth was inaugurated in Manila, with President Manuel L. Quezon and Vice-President Sergio Osmena. This became the Philippine government in exile during the war.
From 1941 - 1945, the Philippines came under the Japanese empire. A puppet government, the Second Philippine Republic, was established, with President Manuel A. Roxas. This was the first fully independent and internationally recognized Filipino government.
|Must see this poverty to believe it, Manila, Philippines|
The Philippines then became the showcase of democracy in Asia and had peaceful transition of power through many successive presidents - Roxas, Quirino, Magsaysay, Garcia, Macapagal, and Marcos. On September 21, 1972, President Marcos declared Martial Law and pushed through a new constitution in 1973, which prolonged his stay in power. He jailed his political rivals, dismissed Congress, silenced media critics, and ruled as a virtual dictator in what he called "Constitutional Authoritarianism."
On August 21, 1983, his arch-rival, former Senator Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, returned home from three years of self-exile abroad. At the airport, Aquino was shot dead by a military assassin. This galvanized the Filipino people to fight the dictator. And on February 22, 1986, Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile, Deputy Armed Forces Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos, and reformist military officers broke away from the Marcos camp and prepared to fight a bloody confrontation with Marcos and his loyalist forces. They were supported by the "People Power Revolution" of February 22-25, 1986, which forced Marcos and his party to flee to Hawaii on board the US Air Force planes.
|Dry season in Bulacan, PI|
Population in Philippines increased from 1990 to 2008 with 28 million with 45 % growth. The first official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685. As of 2011, the Philippines has become the world's 12th most populous nation, with a population of over 94 million. It is estimated that half of the population resides on the island of Luzon. The population growth rate between 1995 to 2000 of 3.21% decreased to an estimated 1.95% for the 2005 to 2010 period, but remains a contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 71.38 years, 74.45 years for females and 68.45 years for males.
|Jeanne Hodges, Hundred Islands, Philippines|
There are about 11 million Filipinos outside the Philippines. Since the liberalization of United States immigration laws in 1965, the number of people in the United States having Filipino ancestry has grown substantially. In 2007 there were an estimated 3.1 million. According to the United States Census Bureau, immigrants from the Philippines made up the second largest group after Mexico that sought family reunification. Some two million Filipinos work in the Middle East, with nearly a million in Saudi Arabia alone
by Prime Sarmiento
MANILA, Feb. 11 (Xinhua) -- Massive poverty remains a problem in the Philippines despite its much vaunted growth.
The Philippines posted a record 7.3 percent GDP growth in 2010, but such growth failed to lift most Filipinos from poverty. The National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) reported Tuesday that poverty incidence in the Philippines hit 26.5 percent in 2009. This is little changed from 26.4 percent recorded in 2006 -- the last time that a poverty survey was conducted.
|Bulacan, Philippines by Jeanne Hodges|
A total of 23.1 million of Filipinos -- about a third of the country's 90 million populace -- are still subsisting on below 2 U. S. dollars per day. This figure which is considered among the highest in Southeast Asia.
NSCB Secretary General Romulo A. Virola estimates that government needs to reduce poverty incidence by 2 percentage points every year to meet its Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of slashing poverty incidence by half in 2015.
Analysts are not surprised that the poor are the last to benefit from the country's economic gains.
Leonor Magtolis-Briones, lead convener of advocacy group Social Watch Philippines, said that as long as the unemployment rate remains high, people won't be able to escape from poverty.
Economic growth hardly dented the country's high unemployment and underemployment rate. In its latest global employment report issued last month, the International Labour Office (ILO) said that "employment growth in the Philippines slowed considerably in the second quarter of 2010, despite the faster economic growth that was achieved in the first quarter."
|Somewhere between AC and Subic Bay, PI|
The National Statistics Office reported early this week that unemployment rate in the Philippines in 2010 was at 7.3 percent, slightly lower than the 7.5 percent rate in 2009. About 2.9 million Filipinos were unemployed in 2010. The number of underemployed workers in 2010 was 6.8 million, representing an annual underemployment rate of 18.7 percent.
|Garbage dump children, Malabon, PI|
|Raised in garbage, Malabon, PI|
Lawrence Jeff Johnson, director for ILO's country office in Manila noted that more than the lack of jobs itself, it is the quality of jobs available that prevented poor Filipinos from escaping the plight. A lot of poor Filipinos are among the so- called "vulnerable workers" -- working on low paid jobs that don't offer social security, health insurance and other benefits. These "vulnerable workers" include pedicab drivers, street vendors and unpaid family workers.
Socioeconomic Planning Secretary Cayetano Paderanga Jr. is optimistic that private investments in tourism and agriculture combined with the government's Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program will ensure that millions will be lifted out of poverty.
"I think the social programs that the government has continued and expanded will have a good chance in catching those really at the bottom of the spectrum and be able to push a bit some of them forward," he said.
|Smoking Mt road Malabon / Manila, PI|
But Briones is critical of the government's CCT program.
"The government's CCT has no exit program. How long would you continue giving cash dole outs to the poor?" she said, adding that the more sustainable solution to the poverty problem is to create more jobs.
"But how do you solve joblessness? For that you have to look at the national budget," she said.
|The blood sport of the Philippines|
Briones said that instead of pouring money in CCT, the government should invest in infrastructure and agriculture -- which will provide more jobs to people. She also advised that more government funds should go to Visayus and Mindanao -- as most of the country's poor are living in central and southern Philippines.
|Street Children of Manila|
ILO's Johnson suggested that the government and the private sector should invest on workers to raise productivity and enable workers to enjoy higher wages. Street vendors, for instance, can be trained to become service workers in hotel and restaurants.
Johnson added there's also a need to address the current job mismatch. For instance, Johnson said that there are a big number of unemployed nursing graduates. On the other hand, there's a shortage in skilled and in demand medical transcriptionist. Johnson said skilled professionals can be trained for jobs which has a strong demand in the market.
The latest survey(UNICEF) shows that 200,000 Filipino children are living on the streets exposed to unsavory influences. As many as 60,000 are vulnerable to sexual exploitation. At least 66 per cent under the age of six do not have any childcare. And more than 6 million children are between malnourished to starvation.
|The AC strip|
Corruption still a serious problem in RP — UN exec
By Michaela P. del CallarThe Daily TribuneA United Nations official yesterday said there is an urgent need to raise awareness among Filipinos on the need to bring to “zero level” the problem of corruption which remains a serious problem in the country.Renaud Meyer, Coun-try Director of the United Nations Deve-lopment Program (UNDP), stressed that the whole country must be more vigilant against corruption following allegations that it has reached the highest levels of government.
|More PI poverty|
“Corruption as a principle... is an infringement to human rights. It’s one of the strongest impediments that hinders the fight against poverty. So it’s no, no, no to corruption. That will be the first message and the second message is zero tolerance,” Meyer said at the UN Convention Against Corruption (UNCaC) Summit in Manila.Meyer warned that the weak justice system, weak prosecution and lack of convictions would erode public trust and confidence in the government and its institutions.
He noted that the most important danger is when individual Filipinos start accepting corruption as a natural thing.
“We really need all of us to prevent this from
happening because if this happens then it’s going to be much more difficult to fight corruption,” the UN official said.
Over the years, long-standing problems on corruption in the Philippines, poor governance, unsound business policies and weak rule of law, have kept foreign investors at bay.
Even more disappointing is the fact that the Philippines’ development performance over the past years has been less impressive compared to neighboring states in the region as billions of pesos intended for development projects go to corruption.
In January this year, the World Bank, one of the leading financial donors to the Philippines , blacklisted seven companies—three Filipino and four Chinese—involved in road projects after an investigation found evidence of bid-rigging.
|Dane Hodges, Obando, Bulacan, Philippines|
In the probe conducted by the WB, three witnesses, including a Japanese contractor, alleged that presidential spouse Jose Miguel Arroyo and other top government officials were involved in the anomaly.Mr. Arroyo, who had been linked several times to other corruption scandals in the government, denied any wrong-doing and refused to attend Senate investigations on the $330-million construction project.
“If they lose this trust, then you know we’re losing 65 percent of the population and their commitment to make the Philippines a better country for themselves. It’s a very serious trust issue and corruption is a challenge that really hurts and has the potential to undermine this trust among the people,” he added.
“I think it’s very important that young Filipinos still have trust in the leaders of the country, still have trust in the institutions of the country, still have trust in the systems that are running the country,” Meyer said.
|Dane Hodges likes zoo, mom like birds, Philippines|
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